Course CodeVHT042Fee CodeS4Duration (approx)200 hoursQualificationCertificate Distance Education Course -RHS LEVEL 3 CERTIFICATE (Principles of Garden Planning, Construction and Planting) Work in landscaping Learn about garden planning, construction and planting Find a job, start a business, work in landscaping 150,000 words of unique course notes developed by our staff 200 hour self paced course Support from an international team of highly qualified horticulturists and landscape professionals based both in the UK and Australia NB: Level 3 in the UK is the 4th level in that system -as such this is a higher level than Australian level 3 certificates! Develop your ability to describe the principles of using landscaping and other specialist garden elements in the garden, landscape construction, garden design, survey techniques, specialist garden and urban planting. Lesson Contents There are 15 lessons in this course: 1. History of Garden Design and Styles Garden Styles The Earliest Private Gardens Ancient Mid-Eastern Gardens English Garden History The English Landscape Garden Japanese Influences Important English Landscapers Monastery Gardens Hispano-Arabic Gardens Italian Gardens 2. Site Appraisals, Basic Surveying Techniques and Client Briefs Influence of Trees on Buildings Influence of Trees on Atmosphere Species Suitability Planning Considerations Pre Planning Survey - Appraising the Site and Collecting Data Understanding Soils Soil Texture Nutrient Availability and pH Landscape Plans and Survey Techniques Site Plan/Base Plan Topographic Plan Concept Plan The Final Plan The Planting Plan Surveying Techniques Steps in the Design Procedure Landscape Graphics 3. Principles and Elements of Garden Design and the Influence of Site Characteristics Principles and Elements of Landscape Design Creating Landscaping Effects Colour and Garden Design Influence of Site Characteristics The Sun’s Path and Its Affect on Shade Extending the Garden Potential Fragrant Trees and Shrubs Potager and Picking Gardens Determining Shadow Length Gardens with a Sense of Mystery Focal Point Ideas Gardens for Children User Friendly Gardens Seating Shelters 4. Hard Landscaping Features and their Contribution to Garden Design and Function Hard Surfacing Paving Flexible and Rigid Paving Materials Used in Paving Selecting Materials Coloured Surfaces Barriers and Walls Creating Barriers Fences Plants to Grow on Trellis Stone Walls Garden Structures Gazebos,Verandahs,Pergolas Where to build in the Garden Accessibility The direction of the sun Views Drainage Rockeries Rockery Ideas Water Gardens Fountains, Waterfalls, Pot Ponds, etc Using Water Features in the Landscape Planning for Children's Play Play Differs with Age Child Safety Designing the Garden for Children Play Equipment for Different Ages Recommended Play Surfaces Environmental Sustainability 5. The Function of Drainage Systems in the Garden Symptoms of Poor Drainage Systems Typical Permeability Rates Solving Drainage Problems Hard Drainage Methods Soft Drainage 6. Soft Landscaping Features and their Contribution to Garden Design and Function Plant Selection Plant Varieties Colourful Year Round Foliage Plants that Tolerate Poor Drainage Coastal Plantings Trees Selecting Woody Plants Deciduous or Semi-deciduous Trees Evergreen Trees Flowering Shrubs Selecting Flowering Shrubs Establishing Woody Plants Planting Procedure Windbreaks, Hedges and Screens Establishing Hedges and Screens Pruning or Trimming an Established Hedge Alpine Plants Selecting Annual Plants Types of Annual Plants Selecting Annuals of Differing Heights Perennials Selecting Herbaceous Perennial Plants Maintenance Hints For Perennials Scented Plants Dry Gardens Selecting Water Plants Establishing Water Plants 7. Turf and its Contribution to Garden Design and Function The Benefits of Turf Selecting Turf Turf Varieties Lawn Mixes Wild Flower Meadows Turf Establishment Soil Preparation Sodding/Instant Turf Golden Rules for Laying Instant Turf Drainage Mowing Turf Mowing Heights Direction of Cut or Pattern of Cutting Mower Safety Other Turf Maintenance Techniques Fertilising Turf Weed Control Preventing Dispersal Non Chemical Control Methods Herbicide Use in Turf Turf Health Problems Commonly Used Chemical Pesticides Commonly Used Chemicals; fungicides Spray Equipment Domestic Lawn Care Program Turf Water Needs Understanding the Movement of Soil Water Irrigating Turf 8. Setting out a Site to Scale Plans and Drawings How Landscape Plans are Presented Setting Out the Site for Landscape Construction 9. Earthworks, Soil Storage and Drainage Systems Earthworks Slope Stability Soil Types and Foundations Try to Maintain Vegetation Cover Where Possible Developing a Grading Plan Required Grading Drawings Grading Operations Earth Moving Machinery Use Experienced Operators Cost of Earthworks Earthworks Calculations Volumes of Irregular Solids Land Drainage Systems Drainage Design Springs and Under-ground Water Courses What a Landscaper Should Know about Drainage Sub Surface Drainage Gradients Distance between Drain Pipes Depth of Drains Types of Drains Laying the Drain 10. Landscape Construction Procedures and Materials Paths Load Bearing Capacity Concrete Reinforcement Paving Essentials Paving a Slope Setting out Circular Paving Curved Paving Concrete Surfaces Laying Pebbles Building a Timber Deck Decking Materials Decking Around Pools Changing Levels , step by step Ramps Railings Retaining Walls Construction Materials Types of Retaining Walls Drainage Timber Dry Stone Walls Clay Block Walls Recycled Rubber Walls How to Render a Wall Fencing Fencing Materials Supporting the Fence Tips for Building a Timber Fence 11. Constructing Rock Gardens and Water Features Rockeries How to Build Artificial Rocks Ponds Construction of a Water Garden How to Make a Water Garden using a Liner How to make a Water Garden using a Preformed Unit Pumps Pond Filtration Systems Work Safety Safe Work Management Plans Risk Assessment of a Landscape Construction Site Risk to the Project Risk to the Workers The Adequacy of Existing Controls Risk Control Methods Example of a Risk Assessment Procedure Example Risk Assessment of Protected Crop Production Safety Techniques Manual Lifting How to Lift Using Machines to do the Heavy Work 12. Amenity Bedding Schemes Flower Bed Layout for Annuals Other Types of Bedding Schemes Shapes for Beds Achieving the Best Results Colour Themes Get Your Timing Right and Getting the Most out of Your Flower Bed Using Perennials Herbaceous Perennials Making Garden Beds - The Variables Planting Basic Planting Procedure Staking Time of Planting Mulching Pruning Water Popular Annuals Supporting Herbaceous Plants Shade Tolerant Perennials Bulbs which Grow in Shade Plant with Fragrant Flowers Fragrant Foliage Night Scented Plants Some Evergreen Perennials Ornamental Grasses Ornamental Grasses for Year Round Effect Some Ornamental Grass-like Plants 13. Specialist Garden Areas and Urban Garden Options Specialist Garden Areas Garden Ornaments Plants for the Eclectic Garden Art Gardens Plants for Topiary Hedges Pleaching Miniature and Table Top Gardens Trough Gardens Urban Gardens; other options Acclimatising Indoor Plants How to Care for the Acclimatising Plant Acclimatising Period How to Help Indoor Plants Survive Watering Pot Plants over Short Periods Fertilising Re-potting Tips Inner City Gardens Types of Inner City Gardens Community Gardens Living Walls Courtyards Making a Small Courtyard Look Bigger Natural Garden Planting Design Planting Design Elements for the ‘Natural Garden’ Some Plants suited to Wild Gardens Wildlife in Gardens How Plants Benefit Birds Using Ferns in Shaded Areas Sensory Gardens Low Maintenance Amenity Gardens Container Plants Planning the Cropping Program Getting the Best Out of the Vegetable Plot Sowing Vegetable Seeds Sowing and Transplanting Guide Broad Bean Beetroot Broccoli Brussels Sprouts Cabbage Capsicum Carrot Corn(Sweet Corn) Celery Lettuce Onion Pak Choi Parsnip Pea Potato Pumpkins, Maqrrows and Squash Silver Beet Spinach 14. Specialist Pruning Techniques The Basic Rules of Pruning Pruning and Rejuvinating Controlling the Plants Shape and Size Pruning Overgrown Shrubs Removing Dead or Diseased Wood Controlling the Type of Growth Rejuvenation Limitations Pruning overgrown climbers and wall shrubs Pruning Roses Rejuvenating Old and Overgrown Hedges Specialist Pruning Techniques 15. Adapting Gardens for Water Sustainability Conserving Water in the Garden Reducing run-off Collecting and Storing Water Water Quality Recycling Water Saving water in the garden Minimising Plant Water Requirements Irrigation - water saving techniques Mulch Mulch Materials The Green Roof Each lesson culminates in an assignment which is submitted to the school, marked by the school's tutors and returned to you with any relevant suggestions, comments, and if necessary, extra reading. Structure The RHS breaks this certificate into four Units. Our lesson structure relates to those units as follows Unit 1 - Garden Survey Techniques and the Principles of Garden Design: Lesson 1 - History of Garden Design and Styles Lesson 2 - Site Appraisals, Basic Surveying Techniques and Client Briefs Lesson 3 - Principles and Elements of Garden Design and the Influence of Site Characteristics Unit 2 - The Selection and Use of Landscaping Elements in the Garden: Lesson 4 - Hard Landscaping Features and their Contribution to Garden Design and Function Lesson 5 - The Function of Drainage Systems in the Garden Lesson 6 - Soft Landscaping Features and their Contribution to Garden Design and Function Lesson 7 - Turf and its Contribution to Garden Design and Function Unit 3 - Setting out and Construction of Landscaping Elements in the Garden; Risk Assessments Lesson 8 - Setting out a Site to Scale Plans and Drawings Lesson 9 - Earthworks, Soil Storage and Drainage Systems Lesson 10 - Landscape Construction Procedures and Materials Lesson 11 - Constructing Rock Gardens and Water Features Unit 4 - Specialist Elements in the Establishment of Garden and Urban Plantings: Lesson 12 - Amenity Bedding Schemes Lesson 13 - Specialist Garden Areas and Urban Garden Options Lesson 14 - Specialist Pruning Techniques Lesson 15 - Adapting Gardens for Water Sustainability How Do You Provide Drainage in a Garden? (....an extract fro the course notes, written by the school's faculty staff) You can either use a hard or soft drainage method; or both! Hard Drainage Options 1. Brick, stone, cement walling. 2. Surface drains half pipes ('U' shaped) can be set in concrete or even simply on a sand base at the side of a path or along the contour of a slope to remove excess water. This type of drain is needed when the surface water is not readily absorbed (e.g. in heavy clays on a slope). These are also known as spoon drains. 3. Sub surface drains/pipe drains these differ in that they are buried under the soil. Dig a trench and lay either ceramic or PVC agricultural pipes on the bottom. The joins between each pipe should be covered with a piece of plastic (on top only). The trench is then filled virtually to the top with a coarse stone (e.g. 1 2 inch diameter or 5cm grade). The original soil is laid in a thin layer on the very top. Sub-surface drains drain should have a fall of at least 1 inch every 20 30 feet to ensure water moves away. Remember there needs to be a storm water pit or something to collect the water at the end of any type of drain. 4. French Drains/ Interceptor – these are small open drains used to collect and channel surface water away from garden slopes and paved areas and are useful on steep slopes. Open ditches are created and filled with a graded (5-50mm) permeable backfill e.g. gravel, stones, chippings slag or clinker. Particles smaller then 5mm should be avoided as these can cause blockage of flow. French drains become even more effective with the use of slotted drainage pipe in the centre of the drain (i.e. with backfill surrounding the drainage pipes. Pipes are often encased in a horticultural cloth sock to prevent them from silting up. Or the drain itself can be lined with a permeable membrane to lessen problems with fine particles clogging it up. Short drains (less than10 metres long) are diverted to a soak-away pit on larger properties with longer drainage runs water needs to be diverted into a dam or watercourse. 5. Mole Drains – in clay soils, a tube or underground channel can be created by using a machine for pulling a plug through the soil, below the surface when the clay is moist. This underground channel will sometimes remain an effective sub surface drainage channel for 5 years or more. The channel which is created usually needs to have a slope of 1:100 to 1:300 to be effective. 6. Soak-away Pits - a drainage pit is a large hole filled with sand or rubble. Water collects in the pit and gradually seeps away into the lower layers of the soil. The hole is best to be long and deep, not square or circular if possible, and at least 1 2 cu. metres in volume. French/interceptor drains run into a soak-away. Dispersing rather then Concentrating Run-off It should be noted that some countries or situations, do not encourage the use of solid spoon drains as a first option in drainage because it tends to concentrate rather then disperse water. Drainage should be directed to spread and dissipate rather then be captured in a concentrated area. When directing drainage always spread and dissipate - do not concentrate the source. Capture rainfall into planting beds or small holding areas such as constructed creek beds, which can act as small scale infiltration device and can be more cost effective than traditional storm-water designs. Soft Drainage Options 1. Sand slitting – this technique involves making narrow cuts in the soil and filling them with sand. These sandy areas drain excess water quickly. 2. Grassed Waterways – these are areas of lawn or depressed channels in a field or paddock which excess water can collect in, and move along. These have an advantage over a spoon drain in that water can not only move along the waterway, but also be absorbed into the ground beneath. The one disadvantage is that excessive flow in such channels may kill or dislodge the grass (particularly of the slope is too great). Examples include: Shallow, grassy swales; Steeper swales, lined with ground-cover, grasses, or shrubs and trees that tolerate wet conditions. Constructed creek beds with stones of a size to resist excessive current force. A permit may be required. For intense rainfall areas where you need to slow down water which may not be immediately absorbed, incorporate bio-swales, sumps, and impound basins into design of the site. These areas will also provide habitat for birds and animals. Avoid the use of hard surfaced culverts which divert water as these can cause problems to neighbours or further down-stream. See the schools bookstore - www.acsebook.com for ebooks (available in pounds stirling). PLEASE NOTE: This is a fantastic course that students can study anywhere in the world. If you are studying within the UK, you may arrange with the RHS to sit your RHS exams at an approved examination centre, in accordance with RHS requirements. If you are studying outside the UK, from 2015, changes are outside of our control may impact on the ease with with you can sit RHS exams outside of the UK. If any student is unable to arrange to sit an exam through the RHS, they may, as an alternative, sit an exam through this school and if they pass, be awarded an alternative qualification by this school.