# Physics

Course Code Bsc206 S2 Statement of Attainment

### Learn the Science of Physics

Physics is a science that underpins our understanding of energy and movement, from light to electricity and magnetism.

Physics is fundamental to working with machinery, tools and equipment, heating and cooling systems, construction and lots more.

## Lesson Structure

There are 10 lessons in this course:

1. Review of Basic Algebra
• Introduction
• Equations and formulae
• Variables
• Graphing
• Geometry
• Triangles
• Basic formulae
• Logarithms and exponentials
• Trigonometry
2. Introduction: Scope and Nature of Physics
• Observing, measuring, modeling, predicting
• Units of measurement
• Converting between units
• Precision of measurements and identifying significant digits
3. Forces and Mechanics
• Physics and motion
• Displacement
• Speed and velocity
• Acceleration
• Force
• Force of gravity
• Work
• Power
• Energy
4. Waves
• What are waves
• Properties of waves: longitudinal waves, transverse waves
• Wave terminology
• Relationship of frequency or period
• Wave speed
• Sound waves
• Sound spectrum
• Measuring sound
• Speed of sound
• Doppler effect
• Standing waves and resonance
5. Electricity and Magnetism
• Electrostatics
• Conductors and insulators
• How to make an electroscope
• Coulomb's law
• The electric field
• Electricity and electric circuits
• Current
• Voltage
• Resistance
• Power
• Ohm's law
• Circuits: series, parallel
• Magnets
• Magnetic forces
• Ferromagnetism
• Creating magnets
• Earth's magnetic fiels
• Geomagnetic reversal
• Electromagnetism
• Electromagnetism and solenoids
• Electric motors
• Magnetic force
• Right hand rule
• Inductors
• Lenz's law
6. Energy and Work
• What is energy
• Mechanical energy
• Potential energy
• Kinetic energy
• Conservation of total energy and mechanical energy
• Converting kinetic energy into potential energy
• Work and force
• Conservative and non conservative forces
• Conservation of mass energy
7. Fundamentals of Thermodynamics
• Temperature measurement units
• Fahrenheit
• Celsius
• Kelvin
• Converting between units
• What is heat
• Heat transfers: thermal equilibrium
• Thermal expansion and thermal contraction
8. Light and Optics
• What is light
• Reflection
• Refraction
• Demonstration of refraction
• Index of refraction
• Difraction
• The electromagnetic spectrum
• How a rainbow forms
• What are mirrors
• Flat mirrors
• Convex mirrors
• Concave mirrors
• Lenses
• Converging lenses
• Diverging lenses
• Structure of matter
• The periodic table
• Nuclear medicine -diagnostic and therapy
• Archeological and geological dating
• Half life
• Power generation
• Cancer and burns caused by radiation
10. Astronomy, Cosmology and Astrophysics
• What is astronomy
• The pioneers of astronomy
• The branches of astronomy
• Sub fields of astronomy
• Astronomy in our daily life
• The most important discoveries in astronomy
• What is Cosmology
• How did cosmology evolve
• Hubbles law
• Cosmological principle
• Calculate the age of the universe using the Hubble constant
• What is astrophysics

Each lesson culminates in an assignment which is submitted to the school, marked by the school's tutors and returned to you with any relevant suggestions, comments, and if necessary, extra reading.

## LEARN TO UNDERSTAND ENERGY

Before studying physics, it is easy to confuse terms such as energy, work, power and force. In reality though each of these terms has a very specific and different meaning, and by properly understanding these differences you can begin to better understand (and in many ways), manage energy.

Energy is defined as the potential of a body to do work. There are different forms of energy, these are explained below:

Kinetic energy - This is the energy that it is capable of moving another object by its own movement.

Pressure energy - This is the energy a fluid or gas has due to pressure it is under.

Chemical energy - When chemical reactions occur, energy can be either released or used up.

Electrical energy - When electricity flows, it does work. It is the product of the voltage, current and time taken.

Nuclear energy - Fusion and fission reactions

Thermal energy - Hot items have the ability to do work. Temperature and heat have engineering features the study of which are beyond the scope of this course.

#### FORCE

Forces in physics always come in pairs, and the sum of the pair is zero. This is Newton's third law. In other words, for every action - there is an equal and opposite reaction.

Forces act on an object or objects and cause a change in the state of rest, or motion, of the object. For example, a weight of a tractor towing a plough exerts force on the ground as it moves over a paddock; it also exerts force on the plough. The plough, in turn, exerts force on the soil.

#### WORK

When a force is applied to an object and moves that object a certain distance in the direction of the force, the product of the force and the distance moved by the object is known as the Work.

#### POWER

Power is simply the rate at which work is done.

All of these things (and others) can be quantified. You learn to measure them in this course; but even more importantly, you develop a fundamental understanding of the physical world and the dynamics at play between all things, both living and non living.