Picea abies


Norway Spruce

Evergreen and conical conifer tree to 60m high, less in cultivation. Bark is orange-brown to red and shed in scales. Branches typically grow down to the soil surface. Leaves are dark green, four-sided, rigid and arranged spirally. Male flowers are reddish catkins. Female cones are reddish, cigar-shaped, pendulous and grow to 20cm. There are many cultivars, mostly low-growing forms.


Ornamental tree for larger gardens and parks. It is an important timber tree and often used as a Christmas tree.


Prefers full sun, a cool climate and deep, fertile, moist, well-drained and acidic soil. Can be blown over by strong winds if grown in shallow soil. Frost tolerant, but drought and pollution sensitive. Avoid pruning. Propagate by seed or cuttings. Susceptible to diseases in warmer climates including canker, rust and wood rots. Pests include aphids, leaf miners, two-spotted mite and saw flies.


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Plant Health

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More info

Book: ‘Growing Conifers’ by John Mason is available through http://www.acsgarden.com/shop/ Courses on Conifers and Landscape Design are available through Australian Correspondence Schools, see http://www.acs.edu.au/hort

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