Malus domestica


Apple, Eating Apple

Deciduous trees, producing large edible fruit in late summer or autumn (depending on cultivar and climate) on young growth,


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 As this is such a versatile plant, there are few specific requirements.  It can be grown on most soils and in a variety of areas, including Norway, central USSR, Indonesia, South Africa, etc.  However, apples do require 1000 to 1200 hours of cold for optimum fruit set.  Soils should not be subject to waterlogging and trace element deficiencies may develop on highly alkaline soil.
There are three important considerations in apple culture   fruit production, pests and diseases, and pruning/training of trees. 
A variety of pruning and training techniques have been tried and used commercially with apples.  Traditionally, 20 x 20 ft. spacings and open vase pruning have been used.  Hard pruning has long been advocated to help stimulate the development of fruiting spurs. 


Budding or grafting onto seedlings.


There are many varieties of apple, with extensive breeding efforts having been carried out for some time.  The range of varieties once became so great, that many have now simply disappeared due to the difficulties of growing and marketing even a small part of the range.    Breeding efforts have extended to the production of special rootstock varieties.  The most well developed of these is the Malling   Merton range, including over 100 varieties from dwarfing to highly vigorous stocks.  Most of these have the common advantage of conferring woolly aphid resistance.

Plant Health

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More info

The apple is one of the oldest and most extensively grown temperate fruits.  It is extremely versatile and will grow under a wide range of conditions.  It achieves its best development, however in cooler temperate climates. 

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